This is step 5 of our writer’s approach to language creation. It’s the funnest and the hardest part–actually getting your hands into a translation text and learning how language works.
First…setting expectations. Translating takes a really, really, really long time. It’ll be quicker the further on you go, but don’t expect to complete more than a few sentences every hour when you first get started. You’ll be spending a lot of time with the translation text you choose, so here are some thoughts on that important decision:
You might want to pick something shorter and easier so you can have the sense of accomplishment that comes from completing material. But you don’t necessarily want to pick something that’s too short and too easy. I don’t know about you, but I get bored quickly reading, say, children’s books! Plus, if your material is too simple, you won’t learn nearly as much about how sentences are put together. Don’t go trying to translate Godel, Escher, Bach right away, but I do think it’s beneficial to pick something that you are genuinely interested in to look at for the next 20 hours of work.
So what kind of materials are happy mediums between easy and fun? I can only speak for myself, but these are materials I gravitate to when I’m first translating:
- Songs and poetry. This might seem surprising, because non-prose forms have such unusual formats. But actually, it can free you to some extent from being trapped in English’s word orders, and the phrases are usually already “chunked” up nice and easy for you, even if the word order is a bit weird. It’s just psychologically easier to focus on translating I know when that hotline bling, even if you have to furrow your brows a bit over how the hell you’re supposed to convey the sense of hotline and bling for an Age of Sails-era conlang based on Dutch, than to focus on translating It’s often interesting to think about how the culture you’re writing would express some of the concepts in songs and poetry….
- A similar chunking consideration applies to materials that include lots of dialogue. Especially if you’re interested in developing your conlang’s pragmatics and discourse norms, a play or movie script could be interesting, and also typically gives you the chance to do some fun localization into the culture you’re conlanging for.
- Try your own writing! You know what you meant when you wrote it, and a lot of people enjoy re-reading their own prose. Plus, you can engage with your characters and world at the same time as you engage with your conlang.
Once you’ve selected a text, what tactics can you use to make translation work easier? Chunking–I mean the process of separating out the parts of a sentence and handling them one by one–is going to be your number one helper. It can even help to physically print out a page so you can draw lines between the phrases of the sentence.
Sentences are made up of elements like noun phrases and verb phrases (a noun or verb and all its adverbs, adjectives, etc) and adpositional phrases that start with a preposition or end with a postposition and describe a location. Sentences and phrases can both be compound, connected by a conjunction like and, but, or yet in other ways. And soon you’re going to realize that there are a lot of confusing places to chop up your sentences, such as at relative clauses (as in the duck who was mayor) and complement clauses (as in I think that this duck should be mayor).
When you first start translating, it’s going to mean putting into practice a lot of English grammar knowledge you might have only ever applied in theory, and learning about how linguistics conceptualizes these ideas so it can apply them to all types of languages. Don’t get discouraged if a sentence just seems to make no sense! As you research and get familiar with linguistics terms, you’ll soon find texts that looked impossibly complex resolve themselves, like a puzzle falling into place.
And getting familiar with English text in this way comes with a bonus–the clarity this gives to your analysis of your own writing can’t be overstated. It will help a ton to avoid common grammatical errors and make your writing more concise, sensical and vibrant.